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Is the Philippines a Third World Country? Emerging Market vs World Bank and First World Countries

    In the global tapestry of nations, the Philippines stands as a vibrant and complex entity, often prompting the question: Is the Philippines a Third World Country? This article embarks on a comprehensive exploration of this query, delving into the historical origins of the term ‘Third World’, and its evolution over time. We’ll journey through the Philippines’ past during the Cold War, its economic growth and challenges, and its standing in various sectors such as education, health, and technology. We’ll also examine the country’s political landscape, human rights issues, and its role on the international stage. As we navigate through these diverse facets, we’ll uncover the richness of the Philippine society, its struggles, and its triumphs. Join us as we unravel the intricate layers of this question, offering a nuanced understanding of the Philippines in the global context.

    In this article you will find out:

    What Does “Third World Country” Mean?

    The term “Third World Country” is a phrase that originated during the Cold War era, used to categorize nations that were neither aligned with NATO (First World) nor the Communist Bloc (Second World). These countries, often characterized by economic underdevelopment, were primarily in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. However, it’s crucial to note that the term has evolved over time and is often considered outdated and pejorative due to its negative connotations and oversimplification of complex socio-economic realities.

    In contemporary discourse, the term “Third World” has largely been replaced by “developing” or “low and middle-income” countries. These terms aim to focus more on the economic status of the country rather than its political alignment. However, even these labels have been criticized for perpetuating a linear model of development that may not accurately reflect the diverse paths nations take towards economic and social progress.

    How Did the Term “Third World” Originate and Evolve?

    The term “Third World” was coined by French demographer Alfred Sauvy in 1952, during the height of the Cold War. It was a reference to the “Third Estate” of the French Revolution, the commoners who were neither part of the clergy (First Estate) nor the nobility (Second Estate). Sauvy saw a parallel in the global political landscape, where the Third World countries were those not aligned with either of the two major power blocs.

    Over time, the term evolved to become synonymous with poverty, underdevelopment, and dependence, reflecting the economic struggles many of these countries faced. However, with the end of the Cold War and the rise of new economic powers in Asia, Africa, and Latin America, the term has become less relevant. Today, it is more common to refer to countries in terms of their development status, such as “developed”, “developing”, or “least developed”, although these terms also have their own complexities and controversies.

    The Philippines during the Cold War: A Snapshot of the Past

    During the Cold War, the Philippines was a key ally of the United States in Asia. After gaining independence from the U.S. in 1946, the country remained closely tied to its former colonizer through mutual defense treaties. The Philippines was seen as a bulwark against the spread of communism in Southeast Asia, particularly during the Vietnam War.

    Economically, the Philippines faced significant challenges during the Cold War era. Despite periods of growth, the country struggled with high levels of inequality, corruption, and political instability. The rule of Ferdinand Marcos from 1965 to 1986, which included a period of martial law, was marked by human rights abuses and economic mismanagement. These issues, along with the country’s strategic geopolitical position, contributed to the perception of the Philippines as a “Third World” country during this period.

    The Post-Cold War Era: How the Term “Third World” Has Evolved

    In the post-Cold War era, the term “Third World” has become less relevant as the geopolitical landscape has shifted dramatically. The binary division of the world into capitalist and communist blocs has given way to a more complex array of economic and political systems. The rise of emerging markets, the increasing importance of non-state actors, and the growing interdependence of economies have all contributed to this change.

    The Philippines, like many other countries, has experienced significant changes since the end of the Cold War. It has transitioned from a dictatorship to a democracy, undergone economic liberalization, and faced new challenges such as climate change and globalization. These changes have made the label of “Third World” increasingly outdated, as it fails to capture the complexities and nuances of the country’s current situation.

    Read Also: Is China A Third World Country? Review Of Third World Countries

    The GDP and Economic Growth of the Philippines

    The Philippines has emerged as one of the most dynamic economies in the East Asia and Pacific region. The country’s economic dynamism is rooted in strong consumer demand, supported by a vibrant labor market and robust remittances. The private sector remains buoyant, with positive performance from the services sector including business process outsourcing, wholesale and retail trade, real estate, and tourism.

    The country’s GDP has been growing in recent years, accelerating from 5.6 percent in 2021 to 7.6 percent in 2022. Despite the shocks endured through the COVID-19 pandemic and other global headwinds such as high global commodity prices and tight global financial conditions, the poverty rate declined from 23.5 percent in 2015 to 18.1 percent in 2021. The Philippine government is making larger investments in both human and physical capital to boost growth over the medium and long term.

    Major Industries and Economic Sectors in the Philippines

    The Philippines’ economy is characterized by a mix of industries, with the services sector playing a dominant role. This includes business process outsourcing, wholesale and retail trade, real estate, and tourism. These industries have shown positive performance, contributing significantly to the country’s economic growth.

    Another major contributor to the economy is the remittances from overseas Filipino workers. The Philippines is one of the largest recipients of remittances in the world, which play a crucial role in supporting consumer demand and reducing poverty. The country also has a vibrant labor market, with a large and young population that provides a steady supply of workers. The government is actively pursuing policies to further develop these sectors and diversify the economy.

    Comparing the Philippine Economy with Developed and Developing Countries

    The Philippine economy, classified as a lower middle-income country, has been showing signs of robust growth, outpacing some of its neighbors in the Southeast Asia region. According to the Asian Development Bank, the country’s GDP growth is expected at 6.0% in 2023 and 6.2% in 2024. This growth rate, while impressive, still lags behind the rates of developed countries, but it is competitive when compared with other developing nations.

    In terms of per capita GDP growth, the Philippines is expected to see a rise of 4.8% in 2023 and 6.2% in 2024. This is a significant indicator of the country’s development efforts, reflecting the government’s commitment to economic growth and poverty reduction. However, the country still faces challenges, including high inflation rates forecasted at 6.2% in 2023, which could adversely affect the living conditions of those still living in poverty.

    Poverty and Income Inequality in the Philippines

    Despite the strong economic growth, the Philippines still grapples with significant poverty and income inequality. The poverty rate declined from 23.5 percent in 2015 to 18.1 percent in 2021, a testament to the government’s poverty reduction efforts. However, this still means that a significant portion of the population is living in poverty, particularly in rural areas and in regions like Mindanao.

    Income inequality is another persistent challenge. The gap between the rich and the poor remains wide, with wealth concentrated in the National Capital Region. The government of the Philippines has been implementing various measures to address these issues, including job creation, strengthening the capacity of the agricultural sector, and investing in social services. The Philippine Development Plan 2023-2028 aims to ensure inclusive, resilient, and sustainable growth for a prosperous society.

    The Economic Challenges and Opportunities Facing the Philippines

    The Philippines, like many emerging market economies in the East Asia Pacific region, faces a host of economic challenges. These include high inflation, vulnerability to global financial conditions, and the impacts of disaster events, such as typhoons and earthquakes, which can cause significant economic and human losses. The COVID-19 pandemic has also had a profound impact, disrupting economic activities and exacerbating poverty and food insecurity.

    Despite these challenges, the Philippines also has significant opportunities for growth and development. The country’s large and young population, strong remittance inflows, and vibrant services sector are all positive factors that can drive economic growth. The government’s development agenda, focused on infrastructure investment, local economic development, and social investments, also provides a roadmap for the country’s future growth.

    Read Also: Is Kenya a Third World Country?

    Population and Demographics of the Philippines

    The Philippines is home to a large and diverse population, with a significant portion being young people. This demographic structure presents both challenges and opportunities. On one hand, the country has a large workforce that can drive economic growth. On the other hand, providing quality education, healthcare, and job opportunities for this young population is a significant challenge.

    The country’s population is also geographically dispersed, with people living in over 7,000 islands. The three main geographical divisions are Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao, each with its own unique cultural and socioeconomic characteristics. The National Capital Region, which includes Manila, is the most populous region and the country’s economic hub.

    Education and Literacy Rates in the Philippines

    Despite being a middle-income country, the Philippines faces significant challenges in education. Only half of children 3 to 4 years old are enrolled in day care, and only 78 percent complete basic education. The number of children out of school has reached 2.8 million. This situation is worse for vulnerable children, including indigenous children and children living with disabilities.

    UNICEF works with the Philippine government and partners to increase access to formal and non-formal learning opportunities for children and adolescents. The aim is to improve the quality and relevance of teaching and the learning environment. UNICEF envisions schools to be a place of convergence of services and programs for children, including nutrition, disaster risk reduction, and water, sanitation & hygiene.

    The State of Health and the Healthcare System in the Philippines

    The healthcare system in the Philippines faces numerous challenges, including inadequate funding, a shortage of healthcare professionals, and a lack of access to quality healthcare services in rural and remote areas. The government has been working to address these issues, with a focus on improving healthcare infrastructure, increasing healthcare spending, and implementing health reforms.

    Despite these efforts, significant health disparities persist. For instance, access to healthcare services is often limited in the poorer regions of the country, such as Mindanao. Furthermore, certain vulnerable groups, such as indigenous peoples and those living in poverty, often face additional barriers to accessing healthcare.

    Understanding the Political System and Governance in the Philippines

    The Philippines operates under a democratic system of government, where the President of the Philippines is both the head of state and the head of government. The political system is a mix of the American and Spanish models, with power divided among the executive, legislative, and judicial branches. The country is also divided into several administrative divisions, including regions, provinces, cities, municipalities, and barangays.

    The governance of the Philippines has been marked by periods of political instability and allegations of corruption. The country’s development has been hampered by these issues, which have affected the efficiency of public services and the trust of Filipinos in their government. The government of the Philippines, under the leadership of President Rodrigo Duterte, has been implementing reforms to address these issues and improve governance.

    Read Also: Is El Salvador A Third World Country? Exploring Developing Countries And Nations

    Corruption and Transparency in the Philippines

    Corruption remains a significant challenge in the Philippines. According to the Corruption Perceptions Index by Transparency International, the Philippines scored 34 out of 100 in 2020, ranking 115 out of 180 countries. This score indicates a serious problem with corruption in the country’s public sector.

    The Duterte administration has made fighting corruption one of its priorities. However, the country still faces challenges in terms of enforcing anti-corruption laws, improving transparency, and strengthening institutions. The government’s efforts to combat corruption are crucial for the Philippines’ development, as corruption hampers economic growth, undermines trust in public institutions, and exacerbates poverty and inequality.

    Human Rights and Freedom of Speech in the Philippines

    Human rights and freedom of speech are enshrined in the Philippine Constitution. However, the country has faced criticism for alleged human rights abuses, particularly in the context of the government’s war on drugs. Critics claim that the campaign has led to extrajudicial killings and other human rights violations.

    Freedom of speech is also a contentious issue in the Philippines. While the country has a vibrant media landscape, journalists and media workers often face threats, violence, and legal harassment. The closure of ABS-CBN, a major television network, in 2020 raised concerns about media freedom and the government’s respect for freedom of speech.

    Infrastructure and Technology in the Philippines

    The Philippines has been making strides in improving its infrastructure and technology. The government, under the leadership of President Rodrigo Duterte, has launched the “Build, Build, Build” program, which aims to accelerate infrastructure development and spur economic growth. This program includes projects in transportation, water resources, information and communications technology, and power.

    In terms of technology, the Philippines has a growing tech industry, bolstered by a young and tech-savvy population. The country has seen significant growth in the use of digital technologies, particularly in the areas of e-commerce, digital payments, and online services. However, challenges remain, including the need for better internet connectivity, particularly in rural areas, and the need for more investments in technology education and training.

    The State of Transportation and Utilities in the Philippines

    Transportation and utilities are crucial components of the Philippines’ infrastructure. The country has a diverse transportation system, including roads, railways, airports, and seaports. However, the system faces challenges, including congestion in urban areas, the need for more and better-quality rural roads, and the need for improved maritime and air transport facilities.

    Utilities, including electricity and water services, are also a critical part of the country’s infrastructure. While access to these services has improved over the years, there are still areas, particularly in rural and remote regions, where access is limited. The government has been working to address these issues, with efforts focused on expanding access, improving service quality, and ensuring the sustainability of these services.

    Technological Advancements and Internet Access in the Philippines

    The Philippines has seen significant advancements in technology, particularly in the field of information and communications technology (ICT). The country has a growing tech industry, with a focus on software development, IT services, and business process outsourcing.

    Internet access has also improved, with more Filipinos getting online. However, the country still faces challenges in terms of internet connectivity. While urban areas generally have good internet access, many rural areas still lack reliable and affordable internet connections. The government has been working to address this digital divide, with initiatives aimed at expanding internet access and improving the quality of internet services.

    The Challenges and Opportunities in Infrastructure and Technology in the Philippines

    The Philippines, like many developing countries, faces significant challenges in infrastructure and technology. Infrastructure development is crucial for the country’s economic growth and poverty reduction efforts. However, the country has been grappling with issues such as inadequate infrastructure, particularly in rural areas, and the need for more investments in infrastructure development.

    In terms of technology, while the country has seen significant advancements, there are still areas that need improvement. Internet connectivity, particularly in rural areas, remains a challenge. The digital divide – the gap between those who have access to technology and those who do not – is a significant issue. The government has been working to address these challenges, with initiatives aimed at improving internet connectivity and promoting digital literacy.

    Despite these challenges, there are also significant opportunities. The country’s young and tech-savvy population, coupled with the growing demand for digital services, presents a huge potential for the growth of the tech industry. The government’s commitment to infrastructure development, as evidenced by the “Build, Build, Build” program, also bodes well for the country’s future.

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    An Overview of Natural Resources and Biodiversity in the Philippines

    The Philippines is rich in natural resources and biodiversity. The country is one of the world’s 17 mega-diverse countries, home to more than 70% of the world’s species. Its unique geographical location and diverse ecosystems make it a hotspot for biodiversity.

    The country’s natural resources include minerals, forests, soils, aquatic resources, and various forms of energy including geothermal, hydro, and other renewable energy sources. These resources play a crucial role in the country’s economy, providing livelihoods for many Filipinos and contributing to the country’s GDP.

    However, the management and conservation of these resources present significant challenges. Issues such as deforestation, overfishing, and illegal mining have led to environmental degradation and loss of biodiversity. The government has been implementing measures to address these issues, including stricter enforcement of environmental laws and promoting sustainable practices.

    The Environmental Challenges in the Philippines: Climate Change, Natural Disasters, Pollution, and Waste Management

    The Philippines faces a myriad of environmental challenges. As an archipelago located in the Pacific Ring of Fire, it is highly vulnerable to natural disasters such as typhoons, earthquakes, and volcanic eruptions. Climate change exacerbates these risks, with rising sea levels and increasing temperatures posing additional threats to the country’s people and ecosystems.

    Pollution is another significant environmental issue in the Philippines. Air and water pollution, largely due to industrial activities and poor waste management practices, have serious implications for public health and the environment. The country also struggles with waste management, with solid waste generation increasing due to population growth and urbanization.

    Environmental Conservation Efforts in the Philippines

    Despite these challenges, the Philippines has been making efforts to conserve its environment and promote sustainable development. The government has implemented various policies and programs aimed at protecting the country’s rich biodiversity, managing its natural resources sustainably, and mitigating the impacts of climate change.

    These efforts include the establishment of protected areas, the promotion of renewable energy, and the implementation of climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction strategies. The government also promotes sustainable practices in sectors such as agriculture and fisheries to ensure food security while protecting the environment.

    International Relations and Global Standing: The Philippines in the Global Context

    In the global arena, the Philippines plays an active role in various international organizations and forums. The country is a member of the United Nations, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), and the World Trade Organization, among others. Through these platforms, the Philippines engages with other countries on a wide range of issues, including security, trade, and environmental conservation.

    The Philippines also has strong bilateral relations with many countries. Its foreign policy is guided by principles such as the preservation of national sovereignty, the promotion of peace, and the advancement of the country’s economic and social goals. The country’s global standing is influenced by various factors, including its strategic location, its economic performance, and its contributions to international peacekeeping and humanitarian efforts.

    The Philippines’ Relationship with Developed and Developing Countries

    The Philippines maintains diplomatic relations with a wide range of countries, both developed and developing. These relationships are guided by the country’s foreign policy principles, which include the preservation of national sovereignty, the promotion of peace, and the advancement of the country’s economic and social goals. The country has strong ties with the United States, a relationship that dates back to the time when the Philippines was a colony of the US. The Philippines also has significant relationships with other developed countries, including Japan and Australia, and with neighboring countries in the ASEAN region.

    The country’s relationships with other developing countries are also important. These relationships often focus on areas of mutual interest, such as economic development, poverty reduction, and environmental conservation. The Philippines is an active participant in South-South cooperation, a framework for collaboration among developing countries in the political, economic, social, cultural, environmental, and technical domains.

    The Role of the Philippines in International Organizations

    The Philippines is a member of various international organizations, including the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). Through these platforms, the Philippines engages with other countries on a wide range of issues, including security, trade, and environmental conservation.

    In these organizations, the Philippines often plays a proactive role, advocating for issues such as human rights, climate change mitigation, and sustainable development. The country’s active participation in these organizations reflects its commitment to multilateralism and its desire to contribute to global peace and development.

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    The Global Influence and Soft Power of the Philippines

    The Philippines wields considerable soft power on the global stage, thanks to its vibrant culture, its large diaspora, and its contributions to international peacekeeping and humanitarian efforts. Filipino culture, with its unique blend of Eastern and Western influences, has a global appeal. Filipino music, dance, and cuisine are enjoyed by people around the world.

    The large Filipino diaspora also contributes to the country’s global influence. There are millions of Filipinos living and working abroad, and they play a crucial role in promoting Philippine culture and values in their host countries. The remittances they send home also play a significant role in the Philippine economy.

    Is the Philippines a Third World Country?

    The term “Third World” originated during the Cold War to define countries that were neither aligned with NATO nor the Communist Bloc. Today, it is often used to broadly categorize countries based on their levels of economic development, with “Third World” countries typically being less economically developed. However, this term is considered outdated and overly simplistic, as it fails to capture the complexities and nuances of a country’s development.

    In the case of the Philippines, it is classified by the World Bank as a lower middle-income country, with a gross national income per capita of US$3,640 in 2021. The country has been one of the most dynamic economies in the East Asia and Pacific region, with strong consumer demand supported by a vibrant labor market and robust remittances. Poverty rates have declined, and the government is making larger investments in both human and physical capital to boost growth over the medium and long term.

    However, the Philippines still faces significant challenges, including poverty, income inequality, corruption, and environmental issues. The country’s development path is also influenced by its history, culture, and political system, as well as its relationships with other countries and its role in international organizations.

    So, is the Philippines a Third World country? The answer depends on one’s perspective and the criteria used. While the country faces challenges common to many developing countries, it also has significant strengths and opportunities. It is a country in transition, with the potential to continue its trajectory of economic growth and social development.

    Human Development Index Ranking

    HDI RankCountryHuman Development Index (HDI)Gross national income (GNI) per capita
    4Hong Kong, China (SAR)0.94962,985.00
    13United Kingdom0.93246,071.00
    15New Zealand0.93140,799.00
    17United States0.92663,826.00
    23Korea (Republic of)0.91643,044.00
    31United Arab Emirates0.8967,462.00
    41Saudi Arabia0.85447,495.00
    47Brunei Darussalam0.83863,965.00
    52Russian Federation0.82426,157.00
    62Costa Rica0.8118,486.00
    68Trinidad and Tobago0.796 26,231.00
    69Albania0.795 13,998.00
    70Cuba0.783 8,621.00
    71Iran 0.783 12,447.00
    72Sri Lanka0.782 12,707.00
    73Bosnia and Herzegovina0.78 14,872.00
    74Grenada0.779 15,641.00
    75Mexico0.779 19,160.00
    76Saint Kitts and Nevis0.779 25,038.00
    77Ukraine0.779 13,216.00
    78Antigua and Barbuda0.778 20,895.00
    79Peru0.777 12,252.00
    80Thailand0.777 17,781.00
    81Armenia0.776 13,894.00
    82North Macedonia0.774 15,865.00
    83Colombia0.767 14,257.00
    84Brazil0.765 14,263.00
    85China0.761 16,057.00
    86Ecuador0.759 11,044.00
    87Saint Lucia0.759 14,616.00
    88Azerbaijan0.756 13,784.00
    89Dominican Republic0.756 17,591.00
    90Moldova0.75 13,664.00
    91Algeria0.748 11,174.00
    92Lebanon0.744 14,655.00
    93Fiji0.743 13,009.00
    94Dominica0.742 11,884.00
    95Maldives0.74 17,417.00
    96Tunisia0.74 10,414.00
    97Saint Vincent and the Grenadines0.738 12,378.00
    98Suriname0.738 14,324.00
    99Mongolia0.737 10,839.00
    100Botswana0.735 16,437.00
    101Jamaica0.734 9,319.00
    102Jordan0.729 9,858.00
    103Tonga0.728 12,224.00
    104Libya0.725 6,365.00
    105Uzbekistan0.724 15,688.00
    106Bolivia0.72 7,142.00
    107Indonesia0.718 8,554.00
    108Philippines0.718 11,459.00
    109Belize0.718 9,778.00
    110Samoa0.716 6,382.00
    111Turkmenistan0.715 6,309.00
    112Venezuela0.711 7,045.00
    113South Africa0.709 12,129.00
    114Palestine0.708 6,417.00
    115Egypt0.707 11,466.00
    116Marshall Islands0.704 5,039.00
    117Viet Nam0.704 7,433.00
    119Kyrgyzstan0.697 4,864.00
    120Morocco0.686 7,368.00
    121Guyana0.682 9,455.00
    122Iraq0.674 10,801.00
    123El Salvador0.673 8,359.00
    124Tajikistan0.668 3,954.00
    125Cabo Verde0.665 7,019.00
    126Guatemala0.663 8,494.00
    127Nicaragua0.66 5,284.00
    128Bhutan0.654 10,746.00
    129Namibia0.646 9,357.00
    130India0.645 6,681.00
    131Honduras0.645 6,681.00
    132Bangladesh0.632 4,976.00
    133Kiribati0.63 4,260.00
    134Sao Tome and Principe0.625 3,952.00
    135Micronesia0.62 3,983.00
    136Lao People’s Democratic Republic0.613 7,413.00
    137Eswatini0.611 7,919.00
    138Ghana0.611 5,269.00
    139Vanuatu0.609 3,105.00
    140Timor-Leste0.606 4,440.00
    141Nepal0.602 3,457.00
    142Kenya0.601 4,244.00
    143Cambodia0.594 4,246.00
    144Cambodia0.592 13,944.00
    145Zambia0.584 3,326.00
    146Myanmar0.583 4,961.00
    147Angola0.581 6,104.00
    148Congo0.574 2,879.00
    149Zimbabwe0.571 2,666.00
    150Solomon Islands0.567 2,253.00
    151Syrian Arab Republic0.567 3,613.00
    152Cameroon0.563 3,581.00
    153Pakistan0.557 5,005.00
    154Papua New Guinea0.555 4,301.00
    155Comoros0.554 3,099.00
    156Mauritania0.546 5,135.00
    157Benin0.545 3,254.00
    158Uganda0.544 2,123.00
    159Rwanda0.543 2,155.00
    160Nigeria0.539 4,910.00
    161Côte d’Ivoire0.538 5,069.00
    162Tanzania0.529 2,600.00
    163Madagascar0.528 1,596.00
    165Djibouti0.524 5,689.00
    166Togo0.515 1,602.00
    167Senegal0.512 3,309.00
    168Afghanistan0.511 2,229.00
    169Haiti0.51 1,709.00
    170Sudan0.51 3,829.00
    171Gambia0.496 2,168.00
    172Ethiopia0.485 2,207.00
    173Malawi0.483 1,035.00
    174Congo (Democratic Republic of the)0.48 1,063.00
    175Guinea-Bissau0.48 1,996.00
    176Liberia0.48 1,258.00
    177Guinea0.477 2,405.00
    178Yemen0.47 1,594.00
    179Eritrea0.459 2,793.00
    180Mozambique0.456 1,250.00
    181Burkina Faso0.452 2,133.00
    182Sierra Leone0.452 1,668.00
    183Mali0.434 2,269.00
    184Burundi0.433 754.00
    185South Sudan0.433 2,003.00
    186Chad0.398 1,555.00
    187Central African Republic0.397 993.00
    189Niger0.394 1,201.00


    1. World Bank – Philippines Overview
    2. Asian Development Bank – Philippines: Economy
    3. UNICEF – Education in the Philippines
    4. Transparency International – Corruption Perceptions Index 2020
    5. Department of Energy – Energy Resources
    6. Greenpeace – Philippines Ranked Third in List of Countries Most Vulnerable to Climate Change
    7. Climate Reality Project – How the Climate Crisis is Affecting the Philippines
    8. World Bank – Philippines: Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction
    9. Department of Foreign Affairs – Statement on the Philippines’ Election to the UN Human Rights Council
    10. ASEAN – Philippines